For any patient or consumer considering any medicine or supplement, the most important information we need is reliable knowledge about the effects of active ingredient combinations in that product, and in single doses or servings of that product.
- What type of product should you consider?
- How much should you take?
- How effective will it be at achieving your goal?
- Does it have any negative effects?
If you can answer those questions pretty confidently with actual data to back it up, then you will have much more control over how well any medicine, nutritional product, or supplement works for you.
The cannabinoids found in The Amazing Flower are unique to cannabis, and are not found in other plants that we have found so far. Terpenes, Terpenoids, and Flavonoids however, occur naturally in many other types of plants, and are commonly used in the cosmetics and food industries for their scents and flavors.
Traditional labels of Indica, Sativa, or Hybrid have little correlation with consistent active ingredient combinations. "Strain names" also do not correlate to consistent active ingredient combinations, even with flower from the same grower (see a startling batch comparison further down on this page).
We know that different active ingredient combinations result in different effects, but we have little information about which combinations work best for different objectives or desired outcomes. We hope that you will learn more about active ingredient combinations, and start looking for the best combinations for your needs.
Visit our Active Ingredients Guide for more information about 18 major cannabinoids and 19 major terpenes and terpenoids, including their reported effects and boiling points.
So let's look at the major active ingredients
There are literally hundreds of active ingredients that The Amazing Flower is responsible for creating. The most common active ingredients have been studied to some degree, and the vast majority of those have been shown to have beneficial effects. ALL of them are produced in the bulbous head of the trichomes, or "resin glands" like the ones shown below growing off of the vegetation of the actual flowers.
The large number of active ingredients in The Amazing Flower means it will be difficult to develop actionable knowledge with traditional FDA approved randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trials. Those types of "gold-standard" studies are usually focused on just one or two active ingredients at a time, and it takes many YEARS to get FDA approval.
When we consider that there are literally MILLIONS of different active ingredient combinations and ratios possible in The Flower, it seems prudent that we consider other viable methods to get this knowledge (our Effectiveness Survey is one method we hope you will consider). Especially since The Flower has been used for thousands of years, and we have yet to uncover a single overdose death. Alcohol unfortunately cannot make the same claim, and is not recognized to have any beneficial medicinal effects.
A Strain Name or Type Does Not Mean Consistent Active Ingredient Profiles
Despite what some retailers may tell you, an understanding of the major active ingredient combinations (profiles) in The Amazing Flower is much more important than whether or not the product is labeled an "Indica", "Sativa", or "Hybrid", or has a clever "strain" name. One of the reasons why this categorization remains today is that it is VERY difficult to deliver a consistent active ingredient profile from harvest to harvest - even in the same controlled indoor facility with the same genetics and processes.
Not to get too techy, but take a look at the graphs below. They show the major active ingredient amounts from a single strain from the same vertically integrated "multi-state operator" over a period of 10 months. All product was purchased at the same retail location.
THC Varies A Lot from Batch to Batch
The THC content of this single "strain" varied from around 15% to almost 25% over a period of 10 months and 14 different batch numbers.
Do not think that just because a flower has a THC content under 20% that it is inferior to one that has over 30%. You may get more THC per dose, but if the terpene percentage is the same, you also get fewer TERPENES per dose. Say your goal is to focus and minimize memory loss and you have astutely chosen a chemovar with pinene as the dominant terpene, the 20% THC flower might be more effective. You will be getting MORE pinene per dose in milligrams. To get the same amount of THC, you can take 50% more product.
While that variation is significant, what is perhaps more significant is the next graph showing the major terpene content variation of those same batches.
Terpenes Vary Even More from Batch to Batch
Ever notice how some flower is so pungent that it doesn't seem to matter what container you put it in, it still stinks up the room? And then some flower doesn't seem to do that at all. The explanation is mostly total terpene content. 4% total terpene content flower will be MUCH more fragrant than 1% total terpene content flower.
Below is a graph of the 2 major terpenes in the same strain for the same batch numbers referenced in the THC graph above.
The two dominant terpenes in this single "strain" vary a lot from batch to batch. The sum of those two varies from 0.5% to about 1.5%. The terpinolene content of batch #10 was about 0.2%, while batch #14 was over 0.8%. While these absolute percentages are small in relation to the total dry weight, the variation is 400%!
We know from experience in the food, cosmetics, and fragrance industries that terpenes are very potent, and mere tenths or hundredths of a percent can be enough to dominate a substance's smell or taste. Small variations can also have a significant effect on the way that flower makes you feel.
So, it's apparent that a single professional grower has a very difficult time producing a consistent active ingredient profile from the same genetics. It doesn't mean they are a bad grower. It just means that it is very, very hard due to the complexity of The Flower.
Terpenes are Very Important
Our goal is to help figure out what works best for different goals, and we believe understanding more about terpenes is integral to that goal. They affect people differently, so the only way to really know what works best is collecting data from patients and consumers.
We put together a guide of cannabinoids and terpenes that you can use as a reference. The first eight terpenes in our Active Ingredient Guide seem to be found in the highest concentrations in The Flower, and the rest are listed in alphabetical order. This of course does not include ALL the terpenes found in The Flower, but it covers nineteen (19) frequently found terpenes in flower test results. There are several hundred terpenes, terpenoids, and flavonoids in The Amazing Flower, and that's a big reason why it is truly amazing.
Some "Graphic" Knowledge
The Active Ingredient Table below shows the boiling, or vaporization temperature of some of the major active ingredients in The Amazing Flower. The colors represent the relative amount of heat required to make them boil and vaporize. We believe fun knowledge will be transferred more frequently. Feel free to pass it on, or take a look at some of our knowledge products like T-Shirts and Wall Art in the Knowledge Shop.
The diagram below shows a simplified version of "The Family Tree" of the major cannabinoids. An interesting truth about the development of cannabinoids is that The Flower only produces the acidic cannabinoids (with a -A), and NONE of them have euphoric or psychotropic effects. Only after exposure to heat, light, oxygen, and time are the rest of the cannabinoids created.
Our detailed Active Ingredient Guide here covers the major active ingredients in The Amazing Flower in more detail. It covers 37 active ingredients consistently found in high concentrations in laboratory test results, or Certificates of Analyses (COA) reports of whole flower. It has been shown in several studies that a combination of many of these active ingredients together are usually more effective than a single molecule isolated. This concept has been demonstrated in several studies, and has been named the "Entourage Effect". Although perhaps the "Ensemble Effect" is probably a better term since there really isn't a single "star" ingredient in The Amazing Flower.
Another important aspect to consider is bioavailability - how much of what you take actually gets into your bloodstream. Based on the best research we can find, the bioavailability varies a lot depending on your method of consumption. Swallowing or inhaling 10mg of CBD or THC product will not deliver 10mg of THC or CBD to your bloodstream.
Here is a chart that shows our bioavailability estimate based on study averages for the main methods to take cannabinoids. All of the methods usually deliver their effects for 1 to 3 hours, EXCEPT edibles, which can deliver effects for over 8 hours (more on why ingesting is different below). And despite smoking being rated lower than vaporizing in terms of overall efficiency, some people claim that they actually need LESS product when they smoke versus when they use a vaporizer. It's really what works best for you, and you're not like anyone else, physically or chemically.
Swallowing or Ingesting Is Different...
...because most of the active ingredients get processed (metabolized) through the liver before they hit your bloodstream. The liver converts some active ingredients into different molecules. Delta-9 THC is mostly converted to 11-hydroxy THC. This is one reason why people say that swallowing THC gives them a very different effect than when it is taken in any other way. The effects from ingesting usually last much longer than inhaling or tincturing, too.
There have been recent advances in creating single cannabinoid (isolate) nano-emulsions that increase the bioavailability of ingested cannabis close to 100% before it gets to the liver. These new technologies certainly hold promise, but the research is still scarce. Be very careful when dosing nano-emulsions with potential bioavailability of 100%. You will need a lot less than you normally take to get the same effects.
And PLEASE never forget that cannabis affects different people in very different ways. It requires some trial and error, so remember to always start low and go slow until you find the dose, administration method, and active ingredient combinations that work best for you.