Terpene Dictionary

This is a one-page dictionary of 36 of the most common cannabis and hemp terpenes and terpenoids (have the "-ol" suffix). Let us know if you see one in your product that isn't listed here.

Terpenes are important because Indica and Sativa are not actual molecules found in cannabis or hemp. They really only suggest a general tendency toward a terpene profile. They originally indicated a cannabis or hemp cultivar's preferred growing conditions and regions. Since our focus is on active ingredients, we are interested in the actual molecules in cannabinoid products. 

We've got a few other terpene-focused pages, too:

  • For some background info, take a look at our Terpene Overview page.
  • We've grouped these top 36 terpenes by their primary flavor or aroma on our Terpene Flavor Groups page.
  • The Effects & Ingredients page has both cannabinoids and terpenes grouped by their reported effects.
  • Our Cannabis Infographics page has some colorful infographics we created to hopefully make a complex plant a little easier to understand and control for your specific needs and goals.

Remember, everyone has unique biochemistry, so these "average" effects may be different for you. The terpenes and terpenoids in BLUE are reported to be either calming, relaxing, or sometimes a sedative. If you are aware of some references we may have omitted, please let us know.


We have provided links to boiling point temperature references for these terpenes and terpenoids (end in "ol", like linalool, and are considered alcohol compounds). Most of the boiling point reference links are to the US NIH National Library of Medicine's National Center for Biotechnology Information via their PubChem pages here: pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. If it wasn't on PubChem, we had to go to several other sources. A few of the other reference sites DO NOT display well on mobile screens (sorry).

ALL boiling points are approximate and are for atmospheric pressure, or 760mm Hg (this is where some mistakes were made in the past).

Here is a colorful infographic with 23 terpenes. The colors indicate whether the terpene is considered more uplifting (red, orange, yellow) or more calming (green, blue and purple). We thank the Emerald Cup for leading the way in this type of user-friendly classification of cannabis and hemp terpenes.

Chart of 23 cannabis & hemp terpenes showing more uplifting terpenes in red, orange, and yellow and 'more calming' terpenes in green, blue and purple.


The Top 8 Terpene & Terpenoid List

The first eight (8) are the most common terpenes and terpenoids ordered (roughly) by their prevalence in cannabis and hemp flower. The next 28 terpenes are ordered alphabetically, and generally occur in smaller amounts.

1. Myrcene  (Beta-Myrcene)
The most common terpene in cannabis and hemp that can make up more than 2% of the weight of some chemovars; also found in mangoes, thyme, citrus, and lemongrass, it has a musky, earthy, sweet herbal aroma. It is largely responsible for the green hop aroma in beer and is a major component in dry hopped beer. A 2021 published review study on Myrcene is here.
Boiling Point: 333ºF (167ºC)
Reported Benefits: THC agonist (helper), anti-diabetic, anticatabolic (preserves muscle mass), analgesic (pain reduction), gastrointestinal aid, neurological aid, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)
2. Caryophyllene (Beta- or Trans-Caryophyllene) 
Just about as common as Myrcene in cannabis and hemp flower and can exceed 2% by weight. It has a spicy, peppery aroma and is also found in black pepper, cloves, hops, and oregano.
Boiling Point: 493ºF (256ºC) (several reputable sources have reported this to be 266ºF, but that is NOT at atmospheric pressure of 760mm Hg; 266ºF is the boiling point at 14mm Hg)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, anti-anxiety, bone stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antitumor, anti-diabetic, gastrointestinal aid, neurological aid 

3. Limonene
The final member of the "Big Three" terpenes in cannabis and hemp flower. Contributes a citrus aroma and is commonly found in citrus fruits, lemon rinds, juniper, and peppermint.
Boiling Point: 349ºF (176ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal aid, may potentiate cannabinoids (enhance bioavailability or effects)


4. Pinene (Alpha- and Beta-Pinene) 
Pinene is considered the most common naturally-occurring terpene on earth. Both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene have similar properties and aroma. It's got that pine forest aroma and is found in pine needles, dill, basil, parsley, conifers, and sage.
Boiling Point: alpha: 313ºF (156ºC), beta: 331ºF (166ºC
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, memory retention, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, bronchodilator, gastrointestinal and neurological aid

5. Humulene (Alpha-Humulene, Alpha-Caryophyllene)
Contributes a woody, spicy-clove, "watery" aroma and is also found in allspice, hops, cloves and coriander. While it is common in cannabis and hemp flower, it is usually found in small amounts (<0.2%). Here's a summary of recent research at ScienceDirect.com.
Boiling Point: 334ºF (168ºC)
Reported Benefits: appetite suppressant, analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-spasmodic, anti-tumor

6. Linalool
A cannabis terpenoid also found in lavender, it has a floral, citrusy sweet aroma. Also found in citrus fruits, laurel, coriander, rosemary, sweet basil, eucalyptus, and rosewood.
Boiling Point: 388ºF (198ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), skin aid, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, neurological aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

7. Terpinolene (Alpha-Terpinolene, Terpinolen, Isoterpinene) 

Has a fairly complex aroma that has been described as fresh, herbal, sweet, floral, piney, smokey & woody. It is also found in limes, cumin, lilac, nutmeg, and rosemary.
Boiling Point: 369ºF (187ºC)
Reported Benefits: energizing (when paired with THC) - sedating by itself, analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumor, antioxidant, gastrointestinal disorder relief or aid


8. Ocimene (Beta-Ocimene, Trans-Beta-Ocimene)
An aroma of tropical fruits and woody green citrus, it is also found in parsley, orchids, basil, and kumquats.
Boiling Point: 352ºF (178ºC)
Reported Benefits: antidepressant, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, anti-viral, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protection

Alphabetical List of other important Terpenes and Terpenoids commonly found in cannabis and hemp flower:

A sweet aroma and flavor reminiscent of licorice and is found in anise and fennel, as well as the spirits Ouzo and Absinthe.
Boiling Point: 454ºF (234ºC)
Reported Benefits: antidiabetic, expectorant, gastrointestinal aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Bisabolol (Alpha-Bisabolol or Levomenol)  

Found in chamomile flower, it has a light, sweet, mildly coconut floral aroma reminiscent of honey.
Boiling Point: 599ºF (315ºC)
Reported Benefits: skin aid or softener, analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, neurological aid

Borneol (Isoborneol)

It has a cool, minty, metallic, camphor aroma and has been used in Chinese medicine for a very long time. It is commonly found in mint, rosemary, ginger, mugwort, and camphor. 
Boiling Point: 414ºF (212ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antiviral, "orifice opening" (Zhang et. al., 2017) by increasing flow across the blood-brain barrier, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurological aid


An aroma of cool, damp camphor & musky earth, it is also found in conifer, fir, nutmeg, rosemary, and sage.
Boiling Point: 318ºF (159ºC)
Reported Benefits: reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-tumor

Carene (Delta-3-Carene)
A unique terpene that has an aroma of musky citrus and sweet pine, almost like pineapple, and is also found in basil, pepper, cedar, evergreens, and rosemary.
Boiling Point: 340ºF (171ºC)
Reported Benefits: focus, memory, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, bone stimulant, pain, antimicrobial, gastrointestinal aid

Caryophyllene Oxide (Beta-Caryophyllene Oxide)

A higher boiling point terpene that comes from oxidized beta-caryophyllene. Found in black pepper, caraway, cloves, and basil, it has a dry, fresh, spicy-sweet aroma.
Boiling Point: 536ºF (280ºC)
Reported Benefits: binds with the CB2 cannabinoid receptor, analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant

Cedrene (Alpha-cedrene and Beta-cedrene)
Has a light, woodsy scent found in cedarwood tree oil and can be made from the juniper and cypress trees.
Boiling Point: 505ºF (263ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor

Citronellol (Beta-Citronellol)
Also found in citronella grass, roses, and geraniums, it has an aroma of rose and citrus.
Boiling Point: 435ºF (224ºC)

Reported Benefits: antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic; “When inhaled, citronella can have a relaxing effect on some people and a stimulating effect on others"

Cymene (P-Cymene, Para-Cymol)
Found in many common plants such as thyme, oregano, cumin, and cilantro, it is said to have an aroma profile of mild, sweet, aged wood and lemon.
Boiling Point: 351ºF (177ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor

Elemene (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, y-Elemene)
Used in Chinese medicine and found in ginseng and Chinese Yu Jin, it has a waxy, herbal aroma.
Boiling Point: 487ºF (253ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-tumor (limited research)


Eucalyptol (Cineole)
Also found in eucalyptus, camphor laurel, tea tree, and mugwort, it has an aroma of cool camphor.
Boiling Point: 349ºF (176ºC)
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, bronchodilator, analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor,  gastrointestinal & neurological aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Eudesmol (y-, alpha-, & beta-Eudesmol)
Found in cypress, valerian, tansy, vetiver, and Eucalyptus smithii, it has a woody-sweet aroma.
Boiling Point: 574ºF (301ºC)
Reported Benefits: antioxidant, antimicrobial, appetite stimulant, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant

Farnesene (Alpha-, Beta-Farnesene)
An aroma of green apples and commonly found in the skins or rinds of apples, pears and other fruits. It is often used as a pest repellent.
Boiling Point: 523ºF (273ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, pain, gastrointestinal aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Fenchol (Fenchyl Alcohol, Endo-Fenchol) 
A  lemon-lime, piney, and camphor aroma, it is also found in basil and some aster flower species.
Boiling Point: 397ºF (203ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), neurological aid, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant


A sweet, floral, fruity aroma, it is also found in roses, lemongrass, and citronella.
Boiling Point: 446ºF (230ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, antidiabetic (reduces blood sugar), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, neurological disorder relief or protectant 

Geranyl (Geranyl Acetate)
Lemongrass, coriander, sassafras, and geraniums contain geranyl; it has a sweet floral aroma, and exudes notes of pear and calendar.
Boiling Point: 468ºF (242ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor

Guaiene (Alpha-, Beta-Guaiene)
A sweet, woody, earthy, and spicy aroma and found in the Palo Santo tree.
Boiling Point: 455ºF (235ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory


Guaiol (Champacol, Champaca camphor)

Also found in cypress pines, subtropical conifers, and the tropical guaiacum plant, it has a piney, woody, and rose-like aroma.
Boiling Point: 550ºF (288ºC
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-parasitic, blood pressure reduction, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal aid

Hashishene (monoterpene: 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane)

Also found in Scotch spearmint in small amounts, it has a unique earthy and floral flavor. We know very little about it since it has not been studied much. We know it is present in Moroccan and Lebanese hashish, but NOT in flower. It comes from oxidized Myrcene, so it's effects may be similar, but we just don't have enough research.
Boiling Point: unknown 
Reported Benefits: unknown

Isoborneol (Borneol)
A woody-sweet and spicy aroma, it is also found in common valerian, sage, and thyme.
Boiling Point: 414ºF (212ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antiviral, neurological disorder relief or protectant 



Nerolidol (Cis- & Trans-Nerolidol, Peruviol and Penetrol) 
An aroma that is a faint woody bark, waxy, and somewhat floral, it is also found in neroli, ginger, jasmine, lemon grass, and lavender.
Boiling Point: 529ºF (276ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Phellandrene (Alpha- & Beta-Phellandrene)

Also found in several eucalyptus species, dill, and water fennel, it has a citrusy, peppermint aroma.
Boiling Point: 342ºF (172ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal aid

Has a milder grassy aroma, and is found in most types of green tea.
Boiling Point: 637ºF (336ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antitumor, mild sedative (relaxant or sleep aid) 

A resinous, minty-camphor aroma and found in catnip, pennyroyal, rosemary, and creeping Charlie plants.
Boiling Point: 435ºF (224ºC)
Reported Benefits: analgesic, anti-anxiety, antispasmodic, gastrointestinal aid, neurological aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Sabinene (Sabinene Hydrate, Thujanol)
With a woodsy, spicy aroma, it is found in Norway Spruce trees, holm oak, & nutmeg.
Boiling Point: 396ºF (202ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, gastrointestinal aid

Terpinene (Alpha- & Gamma-Terpinene)
Alpha-Terpinene: A piney, smokey, herbaceous aroma that is also found in tea tree oil, eucalyptus, and marjoram.
Boiling Point: 343ºF (173ºC)
Gamma-Terpinene: Aroma of lime and tropical fruits, and is found in citrus fruits and laurel bay leaves.
Boiling Point: 362ºF (183ºC)
Reported Benefits: THC agonist (helper), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, blood sugar aid, neurological aid

Terpineol (Alpha-Terpineol)
An aroma of lilac and flower blossoms, it is also found in cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil.
Boiling Point: 430ºF (221ºC)
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, anti-viral, gastrointestinal aid, hypertension aid, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Its most famous source is valencia oranges, and contributes to their sweet, fresh, citrus aroma and taste.
Boiling Point: 520ºF (271ºC)
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator 


We also organized these terpenes into general "flavor groups" based on their dominant aroma and taste on the Terpene Flavor Groups page.