Terpenes (30)

The first eight terpenes on our list seem to be found in the highest concentrations in The Flower, and the rest are listed in alphabetical order. This is certainly not all the terpenes found in The Flower, but it covers 30 of the most frequently found terpenes in COA's (Certificates of Analysis test results) for cured cannabis and hemp flower.

A Word of Caution

In a lot of places, getting a real quantitative value for individual terpenes is a difficult task, and is rarely on the product label. We think all labels should contain more detailed, but easy-to-understand information at a glance.

Here is a method for your consideration that we think would make it MUCH easier to understand what's in a cannabis or hemp product. It's just a simple bar graph/chart method. Take a look and tell us what you think. It focuses on the top 8 terpenes that our friends at Leafly have highlighted frequently.

 

The first flower sample is dominant in Limonene and Caryophyllene, and has a total terpene content of 3.8%, which is very nice. It's strain name is "Shipwreck" and it had a total available THC content of over 30% and CBG content over 1.5%.

The next flower sample is dominant in Myrcene and Pinene and has a total terpene content of 2.41%. It's strain name is "Strawberry Switchblade" and it had a total available THC content of 16.5% and CBG content of 0.7%.

IF the terpenes always occur in THAT same order (and color) on the chart, just a quick glance at the two charts above and you immediately know a great deal about the two products. They clearly show the differences in the two terpene profiles. Note: the scale (0 to 2% or so) should ideally be the same, so you can actually SEE the total terpene content by how much color is in the chart at a quick glance.

 

The chart below shows a sad harvest of "Super Silver Haze" that has a total terpene content of only 0.188%. 

A quick glance at this terpene chart shows this product has very few terpenes - there is almost no color in the chart. It's not the genetics, because Super Silver Haze from this same grower and many other growers has been excellent in the past.

Inherent terpene inconsistency may be why some retailers are reluctant to adopt this kind of labeling and instead stick with strain names, and the indica, sativa, hybrid labels. But there are a few retailers and brands in more mature markets that already have similar systems to label detailed amounts of terpenes as well as cannabinoids.

Consumers and patients deserve to know this information and shouldn't have to work for it. This information is already in the Certificates of Analyses, it just needs to be put on the label in an easy-to-understand way. Nevada, Maryland, and Pennsylvania REQUIRE the major terpene amounts on the labels, and we expect (hope) this will become more common in the future.

 

We are a strong proponent of some type of standardized labeling and we will always keep pushing retailers and growers to supply it. If patients and consumers will keep asking for this type of labeling when they make a purchase, the industry will eventually make a change. So keep nagging them! We do all the time.

The Major Terpene & Terpenoid List

The text colors below indicate whether a terpene or terpenoid's general reported effects are considered mostly Calming (blue) or mostly Energizing (orange). Black means it is considered neutral in that regard, or there have been conflicting reports. Remember, everyone has a unique biochemistry, so what might be to one person, might very well be calming to another.

1. Myrcene  (Beta-Myrcene)
The most common terpene in The Flower; also found in mangoes, thyme, citrus, and lemongrass and has a musky, earthy, herbal aroma.
Boiling Point: 334ºF
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, THC agonist (helper) - lowers resistance across the blood to brain barrier, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

2. Caryophyllene (Beta- or Trans-Caryophyllene) 
Probably the second most common terpene in The Flower. It has a spicy aroma and is also found in black pepper, cloves, hops, and oregano.
Boiling Point: 266ºF
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antitumor, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant, neurological disorder relief or protectant

 

3. Limonene
Contributes a citrusy aroma and is also found in lemon rinds, juniper, and peppermint.
Boiling Point: 349ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antitumor, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant

4. Pinene (Alpha- and Beta-Pinene) 
It's said that pinene is the most common naturally-occurring terpene on earth. It's got that pine forest smell and is found in pine needles, conifers, and sage. A great aroma for winter.
Boiling Point: 311ºF
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, bronchodilator, memory retention

5. Humulene (Alpha-Humulene)
Contributes a woody, earthy aroma and is also found in hops and coriander.
Boiling Point: 388ºF 
Reported Benefits:  analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, appetite suppressant

6. Linalool
A major terpenoid in lavender and other flowers, it has a floral, citrusy sweet aroma. Also found in citrus fruits, laurel, and rosewood.
Boiling Point: 388ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, sedative/sleep aid

7. Terpinolene (Alpha Terpinolene) 
Has an herbal, piney aroma and is also found in limes and rosemary.
Boiling Point: 365ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant, energizing (when paired with THC), sedating by itself

8. Ocimene (Beta-Ocimene)
An aroma of tropical fruits and green citrus, it is also found in parsley, orchids, and kumquats.
Boiling Point: 151ºF 
Reported Benefits: antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, anti-viral, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant

Alphabetical List of other important Terpenes and Terpenoids:

Bisabolol (Alpha-Bisabolol) 
Found in chamomile flower, it has a light, sweet floral aroma.
Boiling Point: 307ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor

Borneol
It has a cool, minty, metallic aroma and has been used in Chinese medicine for a very long time. It is commonly found in mint, rosemary, mugwort, and camphor. 
Boiling Point: 415ºF
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antiviral, gastrointestinal aid

Camphene 
An aroma of damp, musky earth, it is also found in lavender, fir, rosemary, and sage.
Boiling Point: 318ºF 
Reported Benefits: antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels

Carene (Delta-3-Carene)
A unique terpene that has an aroma of musky lemon and pine, and is also found in basil, pepper, cedar, evergreens, and rosemary.
Boiling Point: 340ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, bone stimulant, gastrointestinal aid, memory retention, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

 
 

Caryophyllene Oxide
A high boiling point molecule that comes from oxidized beta-caryophyllene. Found in black pepper, caraway, cloves, and basil, it has a dry, fresh, spicy-sweet aroma.
Boiling Point: 504ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant

Elemene (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, y- Elemene)
Used in Chinese medicine and found in ginseng and Chinese Yu Jin, it has a waxy, herbal aroma.

Boiling Point: 484ºF
Reported Benefits: anti-tumor (limited research)

Eucalyptol 
Also found in eucalyptus, camphor laurel, tea tree, and mugwort, it has an aroma of camphor.
Boiling Point: 349ºF 
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, analgesic (pain reduction), anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, bronchodilator, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant, neurological disorder relief or protectant, sedative/sleep aid 

Eudesmol (y-, alpha-, & beta-Eudesmol)
Found in cypress, valerian, tansy, vetiver, and Eucalyptus smithii, it has a woody-sweet aroma.
Boiling Point: 575ºF 
Reported Benefits: antioxidant, antimicrobial, appetite stimulant, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant

Farnesene (Alpha- & Trans-Beta-Farnesene)
An aroma of green apples and found in the skins or rinds of apples, pears and other fruits.
Boiling Point: 523ºF
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Fenchol (Fenchyl Alcohol) 
A  lemon-lime, piney, and camphor aroma, it is also found in basil and some aster flower species.
Boiling Point: 394ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant

Geraniol 
A sweet, floral, fruity aroma, it is also found in roses, lemongrass, and citronella.
Boiling Point: 447ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), antidepressant, antidiabetic (reduces blood sugar), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, neurological disorder relief or protectant 

Guaiol (Champacol)
Also found in cypress pines, subtropical conifers, and the tropical guaiacum plant, it has a piney, woody, and rose-like aroma.
Boiling Point: 198ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic (pain reduction), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant

Hashinene (monoterpene: 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane)

Also found in Scotch spearmint oil, but only in small amounts. We know very little about it since it has not been studied much. We know it is present in Moroccan and Lebanese hash, but NOT in flower. It comes from oxidized Myrcene, so it's effects may be similar, but we just don't have the research.
Boiling Point: unknown 
Reported Benefits: unknown

Isoborneol
A woody-sweet and spicy aroma, it is also found in common valerian, sage, and thyme.
Boiling Point: 415ºF

Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antiviral, neurological disorder relief or protectant 

Nerolidol (Cis- & Trans-Nerolidol, Peruviol and Penetrol) 
An aroma that is woody, waxy, and somewhat floral, it is also found in neroli, ginger, jasmine, and lavender.
Boiling Point: 252ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Phellandrene (alpha- & beta- Phellandrene)

Also found in several eucalyptus species, dill, and water fennel, it has a citrusy, peppermint aroma.
Boiling Point: 340ºF
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor

Phytol 
Has a milder grassy aroma, and is found in most types of green tea.
Boiling Point: 198ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antitumor, mild sedative/(relaxant or sleep aid)

Pulegone
A strong peppermint aroma and found in catnip, pennyroyal, rosemary, and creeping Charlie plants.
Boiling Point: 435ºF 
Reported Benefits: analgesic, anti-anxiety, antispasmodic, gastrointestinal aid, neurological aid, sedative/(relaxant or sleep aid

Sabinene (Sabinene Hydrate)
With a woodsy, spicy aroma, it is found in Norway Spruce trees, holm oak, & nutmeg.
Boiling Point: 326ºF
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, gastrointestinal aid

Terpinene (Gamma-Terpinene)
A piney and herbaceous aroma that is found in in tea tree oil, eucalyptus, and marjoram.
Boiling Point: 356ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Terpineol (Alpha-Terpineol)
An aroma of lilac and flower blossoms, it is also found in cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil.
Boiling Point: 424ºF 
Reported Benefits: anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, anti-viral, gastrointestinal disorder relief or protectant, sedative (relaxant or sleep aid)

Valencene
Its most famous source is valencia oranges, and contributes to their sweet, fresh, citrus aroma and taste.
Boiling Point: 253ºF 
Reported Benefits: alertness/focus enhancing, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator